Electrons in nanostructures or in two-dimensional materials are confined into a potential well narrower than their de Broglie wavelength. Such a quantum-confined electron gas offers a fascinating playground for quantum optics and condensed matter physics, in which electron wave functions, energies, transition matrix elements, scattering rates, and many other parameters can be designed and controlled. A new class of materials that recently attracted a lot of interest is topological materials, in which a nontrivial topology of the Brillouin zone leads to unique optical and transport properties. We study coherent, nonlinear, and ultrafast optical phenomena in these materials. We apply the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling to design novel optical devices with unique functionalities such as operation in new spectral ranges, generation of ultrafast pulses and optical frequency combs, entanglement of photon or electron quantum states, ultra-sensitive photon detection, and ultra-broad modulation bandwidth. Please see the list of recent publications for more information.

- A. Singh, M. Sebastian, Y. Chen, Po-Yao Chang, and A. Belyanin, Hyperbolic polaritons in topological nodal ring semimetals, Phys. Rev. Lett. submitted, https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.12893.
- M. Tokman, M. Erukhimova, Y. Wang, and A. Belyanin, Coulomb-induced synchronization of intersubband coherences in highly doped quantum wells and the formation of giant collective resonances, Phys. Rev. B submitted, https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.07322.
- W. Luo, B. G. Whetten, V. Kravtsov, A. Singh, Y. Yang, Di Huang, X. Cheng, T. Jiang, A. Belyanin, and M. B. Raschke, Ultrafast nanoimaging of electronic coherence of monolayer WSe2, Nano Lett. 23, 1767 (2023).
- M. Tokman, A. Behne, B. Torres, M. Erukhimova, Y. Wang, and A. Belyanin, Dissipation-driven formation of entangled dark states in strongly-coupled inhomogeneous many-qubit systems in solid-state nanocavities, Phys. Rev. A 107, 013721 (2023).
- M. Tokman, M. Erukhimova, Q. Chen, and A. Belyanin, The universal model of strong coupling at the nonlinear parametric resonance in open cavity-QED systems, Phys. Rev. A 105, 053707 (2022).
- N. Nefedkin, A. Mekawy, J. Krakofsky, Y. Wang, A. Belyanin, M. Belkin, and A. Alu, Overcoming intensity saturation in nonlinear multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces for high-efficiency frequency upconversion, Adv. Mat. 2021, 2106902.
- D. Kazakov, N. Opacak, M. Beiser, A. Belyanin, B. Schwarz, M. Piccardo, and F. Capasso, Defect-engineered ring laser harmonic frequency combs, Optica 8, 1277 (2021).
- M. Tokman, Y. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Shteregas, and A. Belyanin, Generation of entangled photons via parametric down-conversion in semiconductor lasers and waveguides, Phys. Rev. A 105, 022707 (2022).
- J. Jiang, L. Shterengas, G. Kipshidze, A. Stein, A. Belyanin, G. Belenky, High-power narrow spectrum GaSb-based DBR lasers emitting near 2.1 mum, Opt. Lett. 46, 1967 (2021).
- A. Forrer, Y. Wang, M. Beck, A. Belyanin, J. Faist, and G. Scalari, Self-starting harmonic comb emission in THz quantum cascade lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 118, 131112 (2021).
- X. Ju, Z. Hu, F. Huang, H. Wu, A. Belyanin, J. Kono, and X. Wang, Tunable ultrasharp terahertz plasma edge in a lightly doped narrow-gap semiconductor, Opt. Express 29, 9261 (2021).
- Q. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Almutairi, M. Erukhimova, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Dynamics and control of entangled electron-photon states in nanophotonic systems with time-variable parameters, Phys. Rev. A 103, 013708 (2021).
- M. May, T. Jiang, C. Du, K.-D. Park, X. Xu, A. Belyanin, and M. Raschke, Nanocavity clock spectroscopy: resolving competing exciton dynamics in WSe2/MoSe2 heterobilayers, Nano Lett. 21, 522 (2021).
- M. Erukhimova, Y. Wang, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Relaxation operator for quasiparticles in a solid, Phys. Rev. B 102, 235103 (2020).
- M. Tokman, M. Erukhimova, Y. Wang, Q. Chen, and A. Belyanin, Generation and dynamics of entangled fermion-photon-phonon states in nanocavities, Nanophotonics 10, 491 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2020-0353
- Y. Wang and A. Belyanin, Harmonic frequency combs in quantum cascade lasers: time-domain and frequency-domain theory, Phys. Rev. A 102, 013519 (2020).
- M. Piccardo, B. Schwarz, D. Kazakov, M. Beiser, N. Opacak, Y. Wang, S. Jha, J. Hillbrand, M. Tamagnone, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, L. L. Columbo, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Frequency combs induced by phase turbulence, Nature 582, 360 (2020).
- S. Almutairi, Q. Chen, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Four-wave mixing in Weyl semimetals, Phys. Rev. B. 101, 235156 (2020).
- J. Jiang, L. Shterengas, A. Stein, G. Kipshidze, A. Belyanin, G. Belenky, Dual-wavelength Y-branch DBR lasers with 100 mW of CW power near 2 mum, IEEE Phot. Technology Lett. 32, 1017 (2020).
- I.D.Tokman, Q. Chen, I.A. Shereshevsky, V.I.Pozdnyakova, I. Oladyshkin, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Inverse Faraday effect in graphene and Weyl semimetals, Phys. Rev. B 101, 174429 (2020).
- Tao Feng, Leon Shterengas, Takashi Hosoda, Gela Kipshidze, Alexey Belyanin, Chu C. Teng, Jonas Westberg, Gerard Wysocki, and Gregory Belenky, Passively mode-locked 2.7 and 3.2 µm GaSb-based cascade diode lasers, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology 38, 1895 (2020).
- M. K. Alam, C. Niu, Y. Wang, We.Wang, Y. Li, C. Dai, T. Tong, X. Shan, E. Charlson, S. Pei, X.-T. Kong, Y. Hu, A. Belyanin, G. Stein, Z. Liu, J. Hu, Z. Wang, and J. Bao, Large graphene-induced shift of surface-plasmon resonances of gold films: Effective-medium theory for atomically thin materials, Phys. Rev. Research 2, 013008 (2020).
- Q. Chen, M. Erukhimova, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Belyanin, Optical Hall effect and gyrotropy of surface polaritons in Weyl semimetals, Phys. Rev. B 100, 235451 (2019).
- T. Jiang, V. Kravtsov, M. Tokman, A. Belyanin, and M. Raschke, Ultrafast coherent nonlinear nanooptics and nanoimaging of graphene, Nature Nanotechnology 14, 838 (2019). Media article: https://science.tamu.edu/news/2019/09/texas-am-physicist-alexey-belyanin-sheds-new-light-on-graphenes-properties-and-future-of-nanophotonic-device-design/
- Q. Chen, A. Ryan Kutayiah, I. Oladyshkin, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Optical properties and electromagnetic modes of Weyl semimetals, Phys. Rev. B 99, 075137 (2019).
- M. Piccardo, P. Chevalier, B. Schwarz, D. Kazakov, Y. Wang, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Frequency-modulated combs obey a variational principle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 253901 (2019).
- M. Tokman, S. B. Bodrov, Y. A. Sergeev, A. I. Korytin, I. Oladyshkin, Y. Wang, A. Belyanin, and A. N. Stepanov, Second harmonic generation in graphene dressed by a strong terahertz field Phys. Rev. B. 99, 155411 (2019).
- M. Piccardo, D. Kazakov, B. Schwarz, P. Chevalier, A. Amirzhan, J. Hillbrand, S. Z. AlMutairi, Y. Wang, F. Xie, K. Lascola, S. Becker, L. Hildebrandt, R. Weih, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Light and Microwaves in Laser Frequency Combs: An Interplay of Spatiotemporal Phenomena, IEEE J. Selected Topics Quant. Electron. 25 2908553 (2019) 10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2908553.
- N.N. Elkin, A.P. Napartovich, D.V. Vysotsky, C. Sigler, C.A. Boyle, J.D. Kirch, T. Earles, D. Botez, L.J. Mawst, A. Belyanin, Analysis of mode competition in resonant leaky-wave coupled phase-locked arrays of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers, IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 55, 2300210 (2019).
- M. Piccardo, M. Tamagnone, B. Schwarz, P. Chevalier, N. Rubin, Y. Wang, C.A. Wang, M.K. Connors, D. McNulty, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso,Radio frequency transmitter based on a laser frequency comb, PNAS 116, 9181 (2019) www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1903534116.
- F.C.B. Maia, B.T. O’Callahan, A.R. Cadore, I.D. Barcelos, L.C. Campos, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, C. Deneke, A. Belyanin, M.B. Raschke, R.O. Freitas, Diode Behavior and Gate Voltage Control of Hybrid Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures, Nano Lett., https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03732.
- M. Tokman, Z. Long, S. AlMutairi, Y. Wang, V. Vdovin, M. Belkin, and A. Belyanin, Purcell enhancement of the parametric down-conversion in two-dimensional nonlinear materials,
*Invited Paper*, Special Issue of the APL Photonics 4, 034403 (2019). - Z. Long, Y. Wang, M. Erukhimova, M. Tokman, A. Belyanin, Magneto-polaritons in Weyl semimetals in a strong magnetic field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 037403 (2018).
- V. Kravtsov, S. AlMutairi, R. Ulbricht, A. Ryan Kutayiah, A. Belyanin, M. B. Raschke, Enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity driven by surface-plasmon field gradients, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 203903 (2018).
- M. Tokman, Z. Long, S. AlMutairi, Y. Wang, M. Belkin, and A. Belyanin, Enhancement of the spontaneous emission in subwavelength quasi-two-dimensional waveguides and resonators, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043801 (2018).
- M. Piccardo, D. Kazakov, N.A. Rubin, P. Chevalier, Y. Wang, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, Time-dependent population inversion grating in a laser frequency comb for microwave and terahertz generation, Optica 5, 475 (2018).
- T. Feng, L. Shterengas, T. Hosoda, A. Belyanin, G. Kipshidze, Passive mode-locking of 3.25 µm GaSb-based cascade diode lasers, ACS Photonics, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsphotonics.8b01215 .
- A. Ryan Kutayiah, M. Tokman, Y. Wang, and A. Belyanin, Difference frequency generation of surface plasmon-polaritons in Landau quantized graphene, Phys. Rev. B. 98, 115410 (2018).
- M. Piccardo, P. Chevalier, T. S. Mansuripur, D. Kazakov, Y. Wang, N. A. Rubin, L. Meadowcroft, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, The harmonic state of quantum cascade lasers: origin, control, and prospective applications (invited review), Optics Express 26, 9464 (2018).
*Editor’s Pick*. - P. Chevalier, M. Piccardo, S. Anand, E. A. Mejia, Y. Wang, T. S. Mansuripur, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 061109 (2018).
- J. Jiang, L. Shterengas, T. Hosoda, A. Belyanin, G. Kipshidze, G. Belenky, GaSb-based diode lasers with asymmetric coupled quantum wells, Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 071106 (2018).
- M. Piccardo, P. Chevalier, S. Anand, Y. Wang, D. Kazakov, E. A. Mejia, F. Xie, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Widely tunable harmonic frequency comb in a quantum cascade laser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 031104 (2018).
- D. Kazakov, M. Piccardo, Y. Wang, P. Chevalier, T. S. Mansuripur, Chung-En Zah, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, Self-starting harmonic frequency comb generation in a quantum cascade laser, Nature Photonics 11, 789 (2017).
- J. König-Otto, Y. Wang, A. Belyanin, C. Berger, W. de Heer, M. Orlita, A. Pashkin, H. Schneider, M. Helm, S. Winnerl, Four-Wave Mixing in Landau-Quantized Graphene, Nano Lett., Nano Lett. 17, 2184-2188 (2017).
- Y. Wang, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Second-order nonlinear optical response of graphene, Phys. Rev. B 94, 195442 (2016).
- Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Gao, J. D. Watson, M. J. Manfra, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono Terahertz Magnetospectroscopy of High-Density 2D Electron-Hole Pairs: Absence of Mott Transition in High Magnetic Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 207402 (2016).
- T. S. Mansuripur, C. Vernet, P. Chevalier, G. Aoust, B. Schwarz, F. Xie, C. Caneau, K. Lascola, Chung-en Zah, D. P. Caffey, T. Day, L. J. Missagia, M. K. Connors, C. Wang, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Single-mode instability in standing-wave lasers: quantum cascade laser as a self-pumped parametric oscillator (
*Editor’s Suggestion)*, Phys. Rev. A, 94, 063807 (2016). - K. Cong, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. T. Noe II, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Dicke superradiance in solids, (invited review), JOSA B 33, C80 (2016).
- M. Tokman, Y. Wang, I. Oladyshkin, A. Ryan Kutayah, and A. Belyanin, Laser-driven parametric instability and generation of entangled photon-plasmon states in graphene, Phys. Rev. B 93, 235422 (2016).
- D.G. Revin, M. Hemingway, Y. Wang, J.W. Cockburn, and A. Belyanin, Active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers operating in external ring cavity, Nature Comm. 7, 11440 (2016).
- B. A. Magill, K-D Park, Y. Zhou, A. Chopra, Maurya, S. Priya, M. B. Raschke, A. Belyanin, C. J. Stanton, G. A Khodaparast, Ultrafast Anisotropic Optical Response and Coherent Acoustic Phonon Generation in Polycrystalline BaTiO3-BiFeO3, Journal of Energy Harvesting and Systems Vol. 3, 229 (2016).
- M. Tokman, Y. Wang, and A. Belyanin, Valley entanglement of excitons in monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides, Phys. Rev. B 92, 075409 (2015).
- K. Cong, Y. Wang, J.-H. Kim, G. T. Noe II, S. A. McGill, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Superfluorescence from photoexcited semiconductor quantum wells: magnetic field, temperature, and excitation power dependence, Phys. Rev. B 91, 235488 (2015).
- Y. Wang, M. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Continuous wave lasing between Landau levels in graphene, Phys. Rev. A 91, 033821 (2015).
- Y. Wang and A. Belyanin, Generation of ultrashort pulses in actively mode-locked mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time, Optics Express 23, 4173-4185 (2015).
- T. S. Mansuripur, G.-M. de Naurois, A, Belyanin, and F. Capasso, Lasers with distributed loss have a sublinear output power characteristic, Optica 2, 48 (2015).
- X. Yao, M.D. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Strong magneto-optical effects due to surface states in 3D topological insulators, Optics Express 23, 795 (2015).
- X. Yao, M.D. Tokman, and A. Belyanin, Efficient nonlinear generation of THz plasmons in graphene and topological insulators, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055501 (2014).
- Q. Zhang, T. Arikawa, E. Kato, J. L. Reno, W. Pan, J. D. Watson, M. J. Manfra, M. A. Zudov, M. Tokman, M. Erukhimova, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Superradiant nature of cyclotron resonance decoherence in two-dimensional electron gases, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 047601 (2014).
- M. D. Tokman, M. A. Erukhimova, and A. Belyanin, Nonlinear Cyclotron Acceleration of Massless Dirac Charge Carriers in Graphene and Topological Insulators, JETP Lett. 100, 390 (2014).
- J.-H. Kim, G. T. Noe II, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wojcik, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas, Scientific Reports 3, 3283 (2013).
- A. Wojcik, P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231102 (2013).
- T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, Review of Anisotropic Terahertz Material Response, Journ. IR, THz, and MM Waves 34, 724 (2013); http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1987
- D. Morris, L. Ren, R.S. Arvidson, A. Luttge, R. H. Hauge, A. Belyanin, G. L. Woods, and J. Kono, Mid-infrared Third Harmonic Generation from Macroscopically Aligned Ultralong Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes, Phys. Rev. B. (Rapid Communications) 87, 161405 (2013); http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.161405.
- L. Ren, Q. Zhang, C. L. Pint, A. Wojcik, M. Bunney Jr., T. Arikawa, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Collective Antenna Effects in the Terahertz and Infrared Response of Highly Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays, Phys. Rev. B. (Rapid Communications) 87, 161401 (2013); http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.161401.
- P. Malara, R. Blanchard, T. Mansuripur, A. Wojcik, A. Belyanin, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, P. de Natale, F. Capasso, External ring-cavity quantum cascade lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 141105 (2013).
- M. Tokman, X. Yao and A. Belyanin, Generation of entangled states in graphene in a strong magnetic field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 077404 (2013).
- X. Yao and A. Belyanin, Nonlinear optics of graphene in a strong magnetic field, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. (invited review; included in IOPselect) 25, 054203 (2013).
- G. T. Noe, J.H. Kim, Y. Wang, A. Wojcik, S.A. McGill, C. J. Stanton, A. A. Belyanin, D. H. Reitze, and J. Kono, Generation of Superfluorescent Bursts from a Fully Tunable Semiconductor Magneto-plasma, Fortschritte der Physik (
*invited article*), 61, 393-403 (2013). - J. Lee, G. T. Noe, Y. Wang, G. S. Solomon, C. J. Stanton, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Renormalized energies of superfluorescent bursts from an electron-hole magnetoplasma with high gain in In
*x*Ga1−*x*As quantum wells, - D. Guo, X. Chen, L. Cheng, A. Belyanin, and F.-S. Choa, Mid-infrared optical amplification and detection in quantum cascade lasers, Opt. Express 21, 30545 (2013).
- X. Yao and A. Belyanin, Giant optical nonlinearity of graphene in a strong magnetic field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255503 (2012) (
*Editor’s Suggestion*); arXiv: 1110.4869. - C. Rödel, D. van der Brügge, J. Bierbach, M. Yeung, T. Hahn, B. Dromey, S. Herzer, S. Fuchs, A. Galestian Pour, E. Eckner, M. Behmke, M. Cerchez, O. Jäckel, D. Hemmers, T. Toncian, M. C. Kaluza, A. Belyanin, G. Pretzler, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, M. Zepf, and G. G. Paulus, Harmonic generation from relativistic plasma surfaces in ultrasteep density gradients, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 125002 (2012).
- T. Arikawa, X. Wang, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, Giant tunable Faraday effect in a semiconductor magneto-plasma for broadband terahertz polarization optics, Optics Express, 20, 19484 (2012).
- D.G. Revin, R.S. Hassan, A.B. Krysa, Y. Wang, A. Belyanin, K. Kennedy, C.N. Atkins, and J.W. Cockburn, Spectroscopic study of transparency current in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, Optics Express 20, 18925 (2012).
- G. T. Noe, J.H. Kim, Y. Wang, A. Wojcik, S.A. McGill, A. A. Belyanin, D. H. Reitze, and J. Kono, Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma, Nature Physics 8, 219 (2012).
- A. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, Self-synchronization of laser modes and multistability in quantum cascade lasers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133902 (2011).
- D. Smith and A. Belyanin, Room-Temperature Semiconductor Coherent Smith-Purcell THz Sources, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 063501 (2011).
- C. Sun, J. Kono, Y.-H. Cho, A. K. Wojcik, A. Belyanin, and H. Munekata, Above-Bandgap Magneto-optical Kerr Effect in Ferromagnetic GaMnAs, Phys. Rev. B. 83, 125206 (2011).
- A. Wojcik, N. Yu, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, Nonlinear optical interactions of laser modes in quantum cascade lasers (
*Invited Review*), J. Mod. Optics, 58, 727-742 (2011).

Ed Rachal Chair

Associate Head for Undergraduate Programs

Advisor, Society of Physics Students

**Office: **MIST 426

**Phone: **(979) 845-7785

**Email: **belyanin [at] tamu.edu

Ed Rachal Chair

Fellow, American Physical Society

Fellow, International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE)

Fellow, Optical Society of America (OSA)

NSF CAREER Award

JoAnn Treat Award

Physics 302 Advanced mechanics

Physics 303 Advanced mechanics II

Physics 649: Physics of Optoelectronic devices

Physics 309: Modern Physics

Mitchell Institute Physics Enhancement Program

Society of Physics Students

Department of Physics & Astronomy

Texas A&M University

College Station, TX 77843-4242