Publications of Gary Varner


  1. If you don't already have one, you'll need to email me to get an ID and password to use in downloading most of the linked publications below.

  2. If you read the essays on-line (without printing them out) you will need in some cases to rotate the PDF image. To do this, right click on the PDF image and click on "Rotate clockwise." Depending on the orientation of the image, you'll have to do this either once or three times.

  3. My complete vita is: here.

Work in progress:

  1. Sustaining Animals: Envisioning Humane, Sustainable Communities is under contract with Oxford University Press. This will be a sequel to Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition, below.


  1. Environmental Ethics for Environmentalists with Jonathan Newman (an ecologist), and Stefan Linquist (a philosopher of biology), was published in late 2017 by Cambridge University Press.

  2. Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in the Two-Level Utilitarianism of R.M. Hare (Oxford University Press, published July 2012).

  3. In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics (Oxford University Press, 1998).

Journal articles and book chapters:

  1. "A Two-Level Utilitarian Perspective on Companion Animals,” in Christine D. Overall, ed., Pets and People: The Ethics of Our Relationships with Companion Animals (Oxford University Press, 2017), pp. 64-79.

  2. "Speciesism and Reverse Speciesism," (refereed peer commentary on David Schmidtz, "Respect for Everything"), forthcoming in Ethics, Policy, & Environment (2011).

  3. "Environmental Ethics, Hunting, and the Place of Animals," in Tom Beauchamp and Raymond Frey, eds., Oxford Handbook on Ethics and Animals (Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 855-876.

  4. “A Harean Perspective on Humane Sustainability,” Ethics and the Environment 15 (2010), pp. 31-49.

  5. “Utilitarianism and the Evolution of Professional Ethics,” Science and Engineering Ethics, 14 (2008), pp. 551-73. (

  6. “Personhood, Memory, and Elephant Management," in Christen Wemmer and Catherine Christen eds., Elephants and Ethics: The Morality of Coexistence (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), pp. 41-68.

  7. "A Ética e o Ambiente” [“Ethics and the Environment”], translated by Vanda Alves Monteiro and Humberto D. Rosa], in Humberto D. Rosa, ed., Bioética para as Ciências Naturais [Bioethics for the Natural Sciences] (Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento, Lisboa, Portugal 2004), pp. 161-180.

  8. “Animals,” in Life Science Ethics, Gary Comstock, ed. (Iowa State University Press, 2002), pp. 141-68.

  9. "Biocentric Individualism," in David Schmidtz and Elizabeth Willott, eds., Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, What Really Works (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 108-120. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Robin Attfield, ed., The International Library of Essays in Public and Professional Ethics: The Ethics of the Environment (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008).
    • Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, third edition (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004), pp. 356-367.
    • Frederick Kaufman, ed., Foundations of Environmental Philosophy: A Text with Readings (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 226-38.
    • David Schimidtz and Elizabeth Willott, ed.s, Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, What Really Works, 2nd edition (Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 90-101.

  10. "Pets, Companion Animals, and Domesticated Partners," in Ethics for Everyday, David Benatar, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2002), pp. 450-75.

  11. “Scientific and Ethical Questions About Animal Somacloning,” Biotechnology International III: The Biotech Millennium (San Francisco: Universal Medical Press, 2001), pp. 56-60.

  12. "Sentientism," in Dale Jamieson, ed., A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 192-203.

  13. “Reconfiguring Borders: Health-Care Providers and Practical Environmentalism in Cameron County, Texas” (with Tarla Rai Peterson, Susan J. Gilbertz, Kathi Groenendyk, and Jay Todd), Women's Studies Quarterly 29 (2001), pp. 51-63.

  14. “Prolegomena to Any Future Artificial Moral Agent” (with Colin Allen and Jason Zinser), Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (2000), pp. 251-61.

  15. “Should You Clone Your Dog?” Animal Welfare (Britain), 8 (1999), pp. 407-420.

  16. “How Facts Matter: On the Language Condition and the Scope of Pain in the Animal Kingdom,” Pain Forum 8 (1999), pp. 84-86. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., The Animal Ethics Reader (Routledge, 2003), pp. 92-93.

  17. “The Takings Issue and the Human-Nature Dichotomy,” Journal of Human Ecology 3 (1996), #1, pp. 12-15.

  18. “Can Animal Rights Activists be Environmentalists?” in Donald Marietta and Lester Embree, eds., Environmental Ethics and Environmental Activism (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995), pp. 169-201. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., The Animal Ethics Reader (Routledge, 2003), pp. 410-21.
    • Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III, eds., Environmental Ethics: An Anthology (Blackwell, 2002), pp. 95-113.
    • Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees, second edition (Wadsworth, 1994), pp. 254-73.

  19. “Teaching Environmental Ethics as a Method of Conflict Management” (with Susan Gilbertz and Tarla Rai Peterson), in Andrew Light and Eric Katz, eds., Environmental Pragmatism (Routledge, 1996), pp. 266-82.

  20. “Environmental Law and the Eclipse of Land as Private Property,” in Frederick Ferré and Peter Hartel, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice (University of Georgia Press, 1994), pp. 142-60.

  21. "What's Wrong with Animal Byproducts?" Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7: 7-17.

  22. "In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature" Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7: 29-40.

  23. "Rejoinder to Kathryn Paxton George," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7: 83-86.

  24. "The Prospects for Consensus and Convergence in the Animal Rights Debate," Hastings Center Report January/February 1994: 23-27. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Wanda Teays and Laura Purdy, eds, Bioethics, Justice, and Health Care (Wadsworth, 2001), pp. 356-63.
    • Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds., The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book, second edition (Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 123-29.
    • Lawrence M. Hinman, ed., Contemporary Moral Issues: Diversity and Consensus (Prentice Hall, 1996), pp. 487-95.

  25. “On the Moral Status of Fish,” Aquatic Conservation 2(2), 1993, pp. 9-10.

  26. “No Holism Without Pluralism,” Environmental Ethics 13 (1991), pp. 175-79. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Andrew Brennan, ed., International Research Library of Philosophy, volume 11, The Ethics of the Environment (Dartmouth, 1995), pp. 553-57.

  27. “Agricultural Research Policy, Environmental Quality, and Animal Welfare” (with Paul Thompson and Deborah Tolman), in Paul Thompson and Bill Stout, eds., Beyond the Large Farm: Ethics and Research Goals for Agriculture (Westview, 1991), pp. 217-36.

  28. “Rejoinder: More on the Ethics of Captive Breeding” (with Martha C. Monroe), Endangered Species UPDATE, vol. 8, #11 (September, 1991), p. 6 (rejoinder to published criticism of following article).

  29. “Ethical Perspectives on Captive Breeding: Is it For the Birds?” (with Martha C. Monroe), Endangered Species UPDATE, vol. 8, #1 (November, 1990), pp. 27-29 (invited paper in special issue on captive breeding).

  30. “Species, Individuals, and Domestication: A Commentary on Jane Duran's 'Domesticated and Then Some',” Between the Species 6 (1990), pp. 181-84.

  31. “Biological Functions and Biological Interests,” Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (1990), pp. 251-70. This essay is reprinted in:
    • Andrew Brennan, ed., International Research Library of Philosophy, volume 11, The Ethics of the Environment (Dartmouth 1995), pp. 117-36.
    • Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees, second edition (Wadsworth, 1994), pp. 288-99.

  32. “Congress, Consistency, and Environmental Law: Nuclear Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada” (with John Lemons & Donald Brown), Environmental Ethics 12 (1990), pp. 311-27.

  33. “Do Species Have Standing?” Environmental Ethics 9 (1987), pp. 57-72.

  34. “The Schopenhauerian Challenge in Environmental Ethics,” Environmental Ethics 7 (Fall, 1985), pp. 209-29.

Book reviews

  1. Bryan Norton, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management (University of Chicago Press, 2006), Environmental Ethics 29 (2007), pp. 307-12.

  2. Cass Sunstein and Martha Nussbaum, eds., Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions (Oxford University Press, 2004), The Philosophical Review 116 (2007), pp. 281-86.

  3. Robert Garner, Political Theory and Animal Rights (Manchester University Press, 2005) and Steven Best and Anthony J. Nocella, eds., Terrorists or Freedom Fighters? Reflections on the Liberation of Animals (New York: Lantern Books, 2004), for Organization & Environment, 19 (2006), pp. 527-31.

  4. Nicholas Agar, Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics, and Nature (Columbia University Press, 2001), Environmental Ethics, 25 (2003), pp. 413-416.

  5. Gary Comstock, Vexing Nature? On the Ethical Case Against Agricultural Biotechnology (Kluwer, 2000), in Bioethics in Brief (Iowa State University), vol. 2, issue 6, May 2001. (

  6. Lewis Petrinovich, Darwinian Dominion: Animal Welfare and Human Interests (MIT Press, 1999), in Animal Welfare, 9 (2000), pp. 461-63.

  7. Philip D. Brick and R. McGreggor Cawley, ed.s, The Wolf in the Garden (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996), in Environmental Ethics 20 (1998), pp. 441-43.

  8. John O'Neill, Ecology, Policy, and Politics: Human Well-Being and the Natural World (Routledge, 1993), in Canadian Philosophical Reviews 15 (1995), pp. 271-73. .

  9. Eugene C. Hargrove, The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective (SUNY Press, 1992), in Environmental Ethics 15 (1993), pp. 279-82.

  10. Marc Reisner and Sarah Bates, Overtapped Oasis: Reform or Revolution for Western Water (Island Press, 1990), in Environmental Ethics 14 (1992), pp. 93-94.

  11. Graham Richards, Human Evolution: An Introduction for the Behavioural Sciences (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987), in Ethics 100 (1990), p. 698.

  12. Max Nicholson, The New Environmental Age (Cambridge University Press, 1987), in Ethics 99 (1989), p. 468.

  13. Christopher D. Stone, Earth and Other Ethics (Harper & Row, 1987), in Environmental Ethics 10 (1988), pp. 259-65.

Encyclopedia entries

  1. “Ecological Hunting (Culling),” in the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, edited by J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Thomson Gale Publishers, 2009), pp. 504-05.

  2. “Cloning, Overview of Animal Cloning” in The Encyclopedia of Ethical, Legal and Policy Issues in Biotechnology, Maxwell J. Mehlman and Thomas H. Murray, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, 2000), pp. 139-148.

  3. “Hunting: Environmental Ethics and Hunting” and “Vegetarian Diets: Ethics and Health” in Marc Bekoff, ed., Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare (Greenwood Press, 1998), pp. 200-01 and 351-52.

  4. “Animal Rights,” “Sentience,” “Vegetarianism,” and “Vivisection” in Ready Reference: Ethics (Salem Press, 1994).

Other professional publications

  1. Task force member for "Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: An Overview," CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology) issue paper #23, February 2003.

  2. Reviews of web sites of the International Society for Environmental Ethics and the Center for Environmental Philosophy, for the American Philosophical Association's Newsletter on Computers and Philosophy, fall 1997.