EXAM 1 PRACTICE EXAM ANNOTATED

 

1.

________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation.

 

A)

Top-down (always involves interpretation)

 

B)

Bottom-up (does not involve interpretation)

 

C)

Parapsychological (this involves esp, astrology, etc., not scientific)

 

D)

Extrasensory (this involves things other than the body senses)

 

 

2.

Joshua moves into his dorm near the train tracks on Wellborn Road.  At first, he is mortified because the noise from the train wakes him up every few hours.  After a few days, however, Joshua sleeps like a baby because he no longer notices the noise from the train.  This situation is a result of:

 

A)

adaptation. (bottom-up, sensory process of decreased receptor activity)

 

B)

habituation. (top-down perceptual process of decreased attention/awareness)

 

C)

selective attention. (this is necessary for perception/encoding)

 

D)

naturalistic observation. (this is a research method)

 

 

3.

Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain:

 

A)

mostly cones.

 

B)

mostly rods.

 

C)

an equal number of rods and cones.

 

D)

more bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day.

RODS and CONES WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

4.

As the football game continued into the night, LeVar noticed that he was having difficulty distinguishing the colors of the players' uniforms. This is because the ________, which enable color vision, have a ________ absolute threshold for brightness than the available light intensity.

 

A)

rods; higher

 

B)

cones; higher

 

C)

rods; lower

 

D)

cones; lower

RODS and CONES WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

5.

The goals of psychology are to _____. 

 

 

A)

explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind (partial goal)

 

B)

 understand, compare, and analyze human behavior (partial goal)

 

C)

improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death (partial goal)

 

D)

describe, explain, predict, and control behavior (this is the complete range of goals)

 

 

6.

Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, she actually did move later to develop her career. Megan's experience best illustrates:

 

A)

the hindsight bias. (“I knew it all along” phenomenon)

 

B)

illusory correlation. (perception of a relationship where none really exists)

 

C)

random assignment. (methodological component)

 

D)

the placebo effect. (reporting an effect without a real treatment cause)

 

E)

overconfidence. (mistaken prediction)

 

 

7.

Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in securing employment. The professor's prediction regarding employment success exemplifies:

 

A)

the hindsight bias. (“I knew it all along” phenomenon)

 

B)

the placebo effect. (reporting an effect without a real treatment cause)

 

C)

an hypothesis. (potential cause-effect relationship)

 

D)

illusory correlation. (perception of a relationship where none really exists)

 

 

8.

The case study is a research method in which:

 

A)

a single individual is studied in great depth. (correct definition)

 

B)

a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors. (observational)

 

C)

organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment. (observational)

 

D)

an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior. (experiment)

 

 

9.

If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +.85, this would indicate that:

 

A)

the relationship between weight and reading ability among elementary school students is not statistically significant. (correlation NEVER provides a cause-effect relationship)

 

B)

Reading ability increases physical weight in elementary school children. (correlation NEVER provides a cause-effect relationship)

 

C)

Greater physical weight increases reading ability among elementary school students. (correlation NEVER provides a cause-effect relationship)

 

D)

body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities of elementary school children. (correct answer)

 

 

10.

In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?

 

A)

the survey (observational – no manipulation)

 

B)

the case study (single individual – no generalization)

 

C)

Experimentation (correct definition)

 

D)

naturalistic observation (observational – no manipulation)

 

 

11.

Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological perspective does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?

 

A)

Phrenology (psuedopsychology)

 

B)

Biopsychology (the interaction of biology and behavior)

 

C)

Psychoanalysis (deals with unconscious conficts, such as inappropriate sexual urges)

 

D)

clinical psychology (focuses on therapeutic interventions, i.e., controlling behavior)

 

 

12.

Dendrites collect _________ and send them to __________.

 

A)

Neurotransmitters, the axon terminals. (dendrites do not connect directly to the axon terminals)

 

B)

Neural impulses, axon terminals. (dendrites process chemical neurotransmitters; axons process neural impulses)

 

C)

Neurotransmitters, the soma. (correct answer)

 

D)

Neural impulses, the soma. (dendrites process chemical neurotransmitters; axons process neural impulses)

PATHWAY OF THE NEURAL IMPULSE THROUGH PARTS OF THE NEURON WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

13.

A young man reads in a letter that he has just won $1,000 in a state-wide lottery and he literally jumps for joy.  Which neurons are sending messages from his brain to his legs ordering them to jump?

 

A)

sensory neurons (these do not send motor commands)

 

B)

motor neurons (correct answer)

 

C)

interaction neurons (no such thing)

 

D)

association neurons (no such thing)

 

 

14.

Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called ________.

 

A)

ganglion cells (light only)

 

B)

bipolar cells (light only)

 

C)

Ossicles (vibrations only)

 

D)

sensory receptors (correct definition)

 

 

15.

McGee has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of:

 

A)

glutamate.

 

B)

Dopamine.

 

C)

acetylcholine.

 

D)

endorphins.

INDIVIDUAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

16.

A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):

 

A)

glutamate. (memory neurotransmitter)

 

B)

antagonist. (blocks neurotransmitter action)

 

C)

agonist. (correct definition)

 

D)

opiate. (class of narcotic pain drugs)

INDIVIDUAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

17.

Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?

 

A)

structuralism; observable behavior (structuralism is not observable; subjects attempt to describe how they are accomplishing some cognitive task)

 

B)

Gestalt; whole (true)

 

C)

psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict (true)

 

D)

natural selection; functionalism (true)

 

 

18.

Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

 

A)

describing behavior (this is not a description of Mei’s behavior)

 

B)

explaining behavior (this does not explain Mei’s behavior)

 

C)

predicting behavior ( correct answer - score predicts good performance)

 

D)

controlling behavior (this is not a way to control Mei’s behavior)

 

 

19.

Which brain structure receives information from all the sensory systems?

 

A)

Hippocampus (involved in explicit LTM)

 

B)

Amygdala (involved in fear and aggression responses)

 

C)

angular gyrus (involved in language)

 

D)

Thalamus (sensory switchboard; correct definition)

 

 

20.

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your:

 

A)

cerebellum. (unconscious motor programs)

 

B)

amygdala. (fear/aggression emotional responses)

 

C)

hypothalamus. (controls endocrine system)

 

D)

sympathetic nervous system. (autonomic fight or flight responses)

 

E)

cerebral cortex. (seat of consciousness and higher thinking; correct answer)

 

 

21.

The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a specific ecological niche is known as:

 

A)

cloning. (laboratory technique)

 

B)

behavior genetics. (perspective that compares contribution of genetics and environment)

 

C)

natural selection. (evolutionary process; correct definition)

 

D)

temperament. (Inborn personality characteristic)

 

 

22.

At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the structuralism psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________.

 

A)

analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements (structuralism definition; correct answer)

 

B)

determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior (functionalism)

 

C)

listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness (clinical technique)

 

D)

carefully feel the bumps on a person’s head in order to determine his or her character traits (phrenology)

NON-CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES WILL NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

23.

The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. “I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50.” The revealed answer is “Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

 

A)

 “Who are the Gestaltists?” (whole is greater than sum of parts)

 

B)

 “Who are the humanists?” (free will; people are good)

 

C)

 “Who are the psychoanalysts?” (correct definition)

 

D)

“Who are the behaviorists?” (focuses on observable behavior; dismisses unconscious motivations)

 

 

24.

One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________.

 

A)

supported by significant scientific research (nope, not testable)

 

B)

based on facts (nope, not testable)

 

C)

difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove (correct answer, because determining unconscious motivations is subjective and unreliable, and therefore not definitively testable)

 

D)

used by the majority of psychologists (nope, just one subset)

 

 

25.

Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?

 

A)

Psychoanalysis (focuses on unconscious motivations)

 

B)

Behaviorism (focuses on observable behaviors)

 

C)

cognitive psychology (focuses on how people think)

 

D)

evolutionary psychology (correct definition)

 

 

26.

What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?

 

A)

to comply with legal requirements (nope)

 

B)

to identify all the extraneous variables (nope)

 

C)

to allow researchers to replicate experiments (correct answer)

 

D)

to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand (nope)

 

 

27.

Roger went to McDonald’s to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________________.             

 

A)

room crowding (nope)

 

B)

observer effects (correct answer; definition)

 

C)

participant observation (nope)

 

D)

eating McDonald’s food (nope)

 

 

28.

Which of the following is true of neural impulses in a single neuron?

 

A)

The neuron may fire during the absolute refractory period. (neuron connot fire during refractory period)

 

B)

The strength of a neural impulse increases as the strength of the incoming message gets stronger. (strength of neural impulses is constant)

 

C)

The strength of a neural impulse decreases as the strength of the incoming message gets stronger. (strength of neural impulses is constant)

 

D)

The strength of a neural impulse is the same each time the neuron fires. (correct answer – all or nothing)

 

 

29.

Which of the following brain areas will be most active in a subject completing a humor comprehension task?

 

A)

Left frontal lobe. (most typically associated with speech production and Broca’s aphasia)

 

B)

Right parietal lobe (correct answer - understanding humor is a right hemisphere specialization).

 

C)

Left occipital lobe. (most typically associated with vision)

 

D)

Left temporal lobe. (most typically associated with hearing and Wernicke’s aphasia)

 

 

30.

Which of the following is NOT true of all neurotransmitters?

 

A)

They are chemicals. (true)

 

B)

 They are stored in synaptic vesicles. (true)

 

C)

They are released across the synaptic space. (true)

 

D)

They increase the likelihood that the next neuron will fire. (some neurotransmitters are inhibitory)

 

 

31.

An emergency room physician must treat a patient who has recently eaten a can of tainted mushrooms.  Suspecting botulism, the physician must treat the woman in order to:

 

A)

prevent the breakdown of serotonin in the patient's nervous system. (botulin is not an enzyme, nor is it associated with serotonin)

 

B)

prevent the botulism toxin from blocking the binding of acetylcholine. (correct answer - botulism is an antagonist for acetylcholine)

 

C)

prevent the toxin from breaking down the acetylcholine in the patient's nervous system. (botulism is not an enzyme)

 

D)

prevent the botulism from blocking the binding of serotonin. (botulism is not an antagonist for serotonin)

INDIVIDUAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS WILL  NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

32.

The process of digesting your last snack or meal or the unconscious regulation of your breathing are all primarily rooted in the __________ nervous system.  

 

A)

autonomic  (correct answer – these are autonomic processes your body carries out without requiring your conscious awareness)

 

B)

limbic  (emotions and drives)

 

C)

somatic  (voluntary muscles)

 

D)

secondary  (nope)

 

 

33.

The deer waits motionlessly, hidden in the thicket as the band of hunters approach.  As they get closer, their dogs bark, picking up the scent of their prey.  In a futile effort to escape, the deer bolts.  Which of the following most accurately describes the nervous system of the hunted deer at this point?

 

A)

Its sympathetic nerve fibers are more active than its parasympathetic nerve fibers. (correct answer – the sympathetic mobilizes the body’s resources for immediate action)

 

B)

Its parasympathetic nerve fibers are more active than its sympathetic nerve fibers. (parasympathetic calms the body down afterwards)

 

C)

Both its sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers are equally active. (parasympathetic calms the body down afterwards)

 

D)

Neither its sympathetic nor its parasympathetic nerve fibers are active. (the sympathetic mobilizes the body’s resources for immediate action)

 

 

34.

The area in the back of the temporal lobe that is important in our ability to listen and understand what others are saying is __________.

 

A)

Korsakoff's area  (nope)

 

B)

Wernicke's area  (correct answer; definition)

 

C)

Broca's area  (frontal lobe area involved in speech production)

 

D)

Sach's area  (nope)

 

 

 

35.

The part of the brain that receives sensations of touch, balance, body position, and oversees spatial abilities is in the __________.

 

A)

occipital lobe  (vision)

 

B)

temporal lobe  (hearing)

 

C)

parietal lobe  (spatial and sensory)

 

D)

frontal lobe  (personality, judgment, motor, etc.)

 

 

 

36.

Despite its dangers, a young man continues to take cocaine because of the feeling of euphoria it produces for him.  This powerful arousal of his nervous system is probably due to cocaine's ability to:

 

A)

inhibit enzymes that break down neurotransmitters. (nope – cocaine is a neurotransmitter agonist)

 

B)

increase the release of neurotransmitters. (nope – agonists do not increase the number of natural neurotransmitters, although they can increase their effectiveness)

 

C)

block the receptor sites for neurotransmitters. (nope – cocaine is a neurotransmitter agonist)

 

D)

intensify the effect of neurotransmitters (yep – cocaine is a neurotransmitter agonist)

INDIVIDUAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS WILL  NOT BE ON THE FINAL

 

 

37.

If the limbic system were destroyed, which of the following structures would be damaged?

 

A)

cerebellum and corpus callosum (nope – these are not limbic)

 

B)

cerebellum and amygdala (nope – cerebellum is not limbic)

 

C)

amygdala and hippocampus (yep – both limbic)

 

D)

hippocampus and corpus callosum (corpus callosum is not limbic)

 

 

38.

Dr. Delmar wants to determine how loud a certain noise must be in order for it to be heard from a distance of 50 feet.  Her question involves the concept of:

 

A)

relative magnitude. (nope)

 

B)

difference threshold. (nope)

 

C)

absolute threshold. (correct answer – the minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to be detected)

 

D)

just noticeable difference (jnd). (nope)

 

 

39.

If a researcher wanted to know how loudly a person must speak in order to be heard above the noise of two other simultaneous conversations, the researcher would likely measure the ________ .

 

A)

difference threshold (yep – the minimum amount of energy needed to determine that two stimuli are different)

 

B)

marginal intensity  (nope)

 

C)

relative magnitude  (nope)

 

D)

absolute threshold  (nope)

 

 

40.

"Sensation is to _______ as perception is to _______."

 

A)

psychological; physical (backward)

 

B)

gathering; understanding (correct – sensation is the gathering of stimulus information and perception is the interpretation of it)

 

C)

understanding; gathering (backward)

 

D)

interpreting; detecting (backward)

 


 

Answer Key

 

1.

B

2.

B

3.

B

4.

B

5.

D

6.

E

7.

C

8.

A

9.

D

10.

C

11.

B

12.

C

13.

B

14.

D

15.

D

16.

C

17.

A

18.

C

19.

D

20.

E

21.

C

22.

A

23.

C

24.

C

25.

D

26.

C

27.

B

28.

D

29.

B

30.

D

31.

B

32.

A

33.

A

34.

B

35.

C

36.

D

37.

C

38.

C

39.

A

40.

B